How does the gyroscope make the balance wheel a Not falling down?

- Sep 15, 2018-

Once upon a time, a balance wheel came out from time to time on the road. Those "small brothers" and "sisters" relied on their own sense of balance to travel through the streets. People who did not know the truth thought they were "cool", but it was not. The magic of all this comes from a small and exquisite device---gyro.


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A gyroscope is an angular motion detecting device that uses a momentum moment sensitive housing of a high speed rotating body to orbit the one or two axes orthogonal to the axis of rotation with respect to the inertia space. When analyzing the motion of the gyro from a mechanical point of view, it can be regarded as a rigid body. There is a universal fulcrum on the rigid body, and the gyro can rotate three degrees of freedom around the fulcrum, so the movement of the gyro belongs to The rigid body rotates around a fixed point. It is a widely used device and is widely used in many fields. It can be seen in the fields of aviation, mobile phones, aerospace, navigation, weapons, automobiles, biomedicine, environmental monitoring, etc. Today, I will let you know. The application and working principle of the gyroscope in the balance wheel.


First, the working principle of the gyroscope


Gyro instruments were first used for navigational navigation, but with the development of science and technology, it has also been widely used in aviation and aerospace. The gyro instrument can be used not only as an indicator, but more importantly as a sensitive component in an automatic control system, as a signal sensor.


The working principle of the gyroscope is the rotation axis of the object rotating at a high speed, and the external force acting to change its direction tends to be perpendicular. When the rotating object is tilted in the lateral direction, gravity acts in the direction of increasing the tilt, and the axis moves in the vertical direction, resulting in the movement of the moving head. When the gyroscopic axis of the gyrotheodolite rotates on the horizontal axis, the rotation of the gyro is subjected to the vertical direction of rotation due to the rotation of the earth, and the rotating body of the gyro generates the precession motion toward the meridian direction in the horizontal plane.


The basic components of the gyroscope have three parts: one is the gyro rotor, and the drag method such as synchronous motor, hysteresis motor and three-phase AC motor is often used to make the gyro rotor rotate around the rotation axis at a high speed, and the rotation speed is approximately constant; The second is the inner and outer frame, which is the structure that makes the gyro's rotation axis obtain the required angular rotation degree; the third is the torque motor, signal sensor and other related accessories.


Second, the application of gyroscope in the balance wheel


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The reason why the balance wheel can be so hot, the role of the gyroscope is self-evident, we ride in the wheel, relying on its perception, and then through the complex calculation control program to ensure a variety of balance, now in the electric wheelbarrow The gyroscope is also an electronic component, not a hardware device.


The electric unicycle has a built-in gyro sensor. With this sensor, the CPU on the vehicle drive circuit calculates the front and rear balance of the vehicle body at a speed of 200 times per second. If the center of gravity of the body is tilted forward, the front value is greater than the rear, and the CPU will issue an instruction. To the sensor on the drive circuit, adjust the direction and speed of the motor, let the motor rotate backward, the vehicle is forward, and vice versa, the more the vehicle leans backward, the faster the body leans forward, the faster the speed; the left and right tilt The body is turning.


The balance wheel is driven by a motor and is controlled by a gyroscope and drive circuit. Tilt your body forward to start. The speed is controlled by the degree of tilt. If you want to accelerate, you will lean forward, and if you slow down, it will tilt backwards. Being able to balance yourself is the most amazing place, and this is the key to the operation. To understand how this system works, it's best to consider the model that makes this device - the human body.


If you stand up and lean forward and lose balance, you may not fall into a big horse. Your brain knows that you have lost balance because the liquid in your inner ear has moved. Therefore, it pushes your legs forward and prevents you from falling. If your body is tilting forward, your brain will continue to move your legs forward, keeping you upright. The result is that you didn't fall, but walked forward, one step at a time.


It works in much the same way, except that it has wheels instead of human legs, a motor instead of muscles, a set of microprocessors instead of the brain, a sophisticated tilt sensor and gyro sensor instead of the inner ear balance system.


Third, the source of gyroscope and balance wheel


The gyroscope is an old and very viable instrument. It has been around for half a century since the first truly practical gyro instrument was introduced, but until now, the gyroscope is still attracting people to study it. It is determined by its own characteristics. The most important basic feature of a gyroscope is its stability and precessibility. It has long been known from children's ground gyros that the high-speed rotating gyro can stand vertically and remain perpendicular to the ground, which reflects the stability of the gyro. The theory of studying the motion characteristics of a gyroscope is a branch of the rigid body dynamics around a fixed point. It studies the dynamic characteristics of a rotating object based on the inertia of the object.


The operation principle of the balance wheel is mainly based on a basic principle called "dynamic stability", that is, the automatic balancing ability of the vehicle itself. The built-in precision solid-state gyroscope is used to judge the posture state of the vehicle body, and the motor is driven to achieve a balanced effect by calculating an appropriate command through a precise and high-speed central microprocessor.


It can be said that the balance wheel, once a popular artifact, let everyone know the gyroscope, but it is also the characteristics of the gyroscope that makes the balance wheel become a "Not falling down" and shine.

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